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Goliadkin's Speech Verbs

For the bar graph, the number of verbs was counted and listed according to addressivity and loudness of verbs in order to observe Goliadkin’s speech patterns in one sight. As expected, the verb “think” is used the most (102 times), as Goliadkin’s speeches mainly consist of internal dialogues rather than speaking out loud or addressing the other characters. However, despite the highest number of the insular verb “think,” the verbs that address the others, rather than Goliadkin himself, have high numbers, as well. Even though the exact number of the occurrences of the verbs are not important, the externalized dialogues are counted as 108 by adding up the number of the verbs from “shout” to “whisper”; his internalized dialogues turned out to be counted as 130.

consolidated verbs


Goliadkin's Dialogue Patterns

In this vein, the pie charts for the word counts in Goliadkin’s speeches turned out to be useful, along with the above verb bar graph which shows the general frequency of the speeches. In order to be precise, the two pie charts that respectively show the word-count (left) and letter-count (right) were created separately and returned almost the same results. The two pie charts expose the following trend among all of Goliadkin’s speech acts: while his external dialogues (in red) occupy 35% of the acts, his inner dialogues (in green) occupy approximately 55%. If the portion of Goliadkin’s talking to his Double, which accounts for approximately 10% (in blue), is included, the internal dialogues occupy 65%. His dialogue with the other people accounts for the significant percentage of 35%, but this could hardly be termed as conversations in terms of communicability and meaningfulness. For example, after the long conversation with his doctor Krestian Ivanovich, Goliadkin simply dismisses what he says, merely being satisfied with what he said. On the other hand, with his co-workers or bosses, he never achieves what he intended to say through the conversations. As Bakhtin noted, all other speeches with the other people serve only as “the stimulus setting inner voices in motion,” considering the novella as a “dramatized confession,” following what Dostoevskii intended (Bakhtin 215).

pie chart word count pie chart speech length count


Frequency of Speech Acts by Character

For the bubble chart, the bubbles are intended to show the frequency of each character’s speech occurrences in each chapter. The x axis refers to the chapters: if you click them, it will transfer you to that chapter in the text page. The y axis shows the six voices that actively engage in dialogues with Goliadkin’s voice, including his inner voices. The bubble for Goliadkin’s double emerges only in chapter six, since he makes his appearance at the end of the chapter five.

NarratorGoliadkin-mockingfor the otherGoliadkin-confidentfor the otherGoliadkin for himselfDoublePetrushkaCHAPTERSCHARACTERS in DIALOGUES12345678910111213

According to the chart, Goliadkin himself indeed occupies the biggest portions of the novel, as Bakhtin called the text a “dramatized confession” (215). The expectation for this chart was that it would offer an obvious relationship between Goliadkin for the other and Goliadkin’s Double, but it turned out that his inner voice keeps its voice regardless of his Double’s appearance, which indicates that his internal dialogues continue. His Double appears as an amplified version of what he desired to be, yet in a degraded version, but this does not replace his inner voice. It makes sense if Goliadkin split his personality in order to save his face after public humiliation, so that his inner voice could only play a role of assurance and comfort for himself, and he himself could play a criticizing role through an externalized and degraded version of himself. The interesting finding could be chapter four, five, and eleven, which show a quite even distribution of the speech occurrences among the voices: these chapters, which display the hero’s intense inner conflicts, contain significant moments of Goliadkin’s continuous fracturing of the self.



Transference of Words Across Characters

The previous visualizations do not show the intersection of the voices. Bakhtin asserts that the narration is a direct continuation and development of Goliadkin’s voice, and it is dialogically addressed to the hero, citing a few examples from the text. The two voices interrupt each other, and their narrations flow seamlessly, to a degree that the boundaries of the two voices are not sometimes clear. It could be detected in reading the context between the narrations, but also could be found through the ways in which the narrator or his Double take Goliadkin's words and put them in a new intonation – mostly in a criticizing or mocking tone.

keywords

While it is not easy to detect tones and intonations of speeches, the frequently transferred words could be quantified. The selection of the words in the stacked bar chart is based on their significance in characterizing Goliadkin’s consciousness: “on my own (сам по себе)” reflects his desire to do without the other’s consciousness or the others’ recognition, while “decorum (приличие)“ displays his external self-awareness about how other people view him. “Scheme (интриг),” “enemy (враг),” and Jesuit (иезуиты) show his paranoia. The numerals beneath the black lines inside the bars indicate the chapters where the words appear, while the black lines indicate the chapter boundaries. In most of the bars, the red square and blue square occupy the large portions and alternate frequently. The usage of the same words mainly by the narrator (blue) and Goliadkin himself (red) serves as evidence that their narrations are in continuation and dialogically address each other. The Double (pink) follows Goliadkin (red) in the bars for “dear,” “enemy,” and “scheme”: his Double reuses his words and phrases in a mocking tone, teasing Goliadkin. “Decorum” is mostly used by the narrator, until chapter 4, but Goliadkin uses this word more after that chapter. While the narrator mostly uses the word to indicate Goliadkin’s concerns about how he is viewed, Goliadkin often uses it to compare his behavior and his Double’s in chapter seven and nine. We can see a parallel of the two voices assessing another’s behavior. Another interesting finding is the word “enemy.” While this word first appears in the narrator’s narration, Goliadkin begins to use this word after his doctor Krestian Ivanovich speaks it twice in a different context: “do not take alcohol as an enemy.” Goliadkin takes the word from him and uses it to unravel his own conspiracy theory against himself.



Conclusions

The quantifications more clearly show that The Double mainly consists of Goliadkin’s inner dialogues with his voices, including the narrator and his Double. Also, the stacked bar chart of the listed words affirms that Goliadkin’s voices and the narrators’ are in a direct continuation and thus dialogically address each other by displaying how the words are transferred from one voice to another. Especially, the chart shows not only the narrator and the Double picking up Goliadkin’s words with ridicule, but Goliadkin picking up the other character’s word and putting it in a completely different context to befit his psychological situation. Although the charts above are not enough to make conclusive remarks on Bakhtin’s concept of the intersection of the voices in one consciousness in Dostoevskii’s The Double, the quantification method could open a new dimension for his discourse theories and analysis of The Double that could be further developed.


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